Author: Carla Lyons

Financial Support for Individuals and Households

by Carla Lyons

There are many types of financial support that are available to the needy. There are many programs that are designed to help those who are struggling to meet their basic needs. There are many different types of programs that provide help to those who are in need.

Obtain financial support

There are many different types of loans that are available for those in need of financial support. One of them is title loan online no credit check no inspection like Green Day. Each loan has different requirements, so it is important to research each one thoroughly before a person or family decides on a specific type of program.

If a person or family is struggling to pay their bills and cannot get a loan to help them pay their bills, they may qualify for a grant that will provide them with the right type of financial support they need. A grant can provide a family with a temporary solution or even a solution for a long term situation. If there are many bills to pay, the family may qualify for a grant that can provide them with help paying some of the bills at a low interest rate.

Available to a person or household can vary

One of the best resources for help is government programs. These programs are designed to help people in need. Some of these resources are the Food Stamp Program, Federal Pell Grant Program, Medicaid, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, Supplemental Security Income (SSI), and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).

The amount of financial support that is available to a person or household can vary. The type of program that is used will depend on the financial situation of a person or household. For instance, some programs require a person or family to have a certain amount of income. There are also some resources that provide assistance to people on a case by case basis.

In order to find the right type of financial support that fits a person or family's situation, it is important to research the program that a person or family is looking into. A person or family that is in need can benefit from the programs that the government provides.

There are some types of financial support that are available that are geared more toward those who are in debt. These programs may also work with a person or family that has experienced a financial hardship.

Can be obtained for a variety of reasons?

A grant can be used to pay for a variety of expenses, such as food, medical bills, and even bills for furniture and home improvements. The money that is provided to a family or individual is available to a family or individual on a need basis, so they do not have to spend money for it until it is needed.

A grant can be obtained for a variety of reasons. It may be used to pay off debts that have accumulated, or it can be used to pay for a medical emergency.

Another reason a grant may be available is for the education of a child. A grant can be used to help pay for an education for a child that is being provided for by a family or the parent.

The one that is appropriate for the situation

A grant can also be used to provide a person or family with the money they need for their home. There are many different types of grants that can be used to help pay for home repairs.

The type of grant that is being applied for will depend on what the family or individual is in need of. There are several different types of grants, and it is important to do some research and find the one that is appropriate for the situation. Once a person or family has found the appropriate grant, it is important to make sure that they are properly eligible for the grant and apply for the grant.

To replace credit with another credit

by Carla Lyons

If you have different loans at different institutions, you should consider whether a complete debt restructuring to only one bank is an advantage.

Keep track with just one loan

In the course of life it can happen that you have to take out various loans and make purchases on installments. If the repayments are planned for the long term, you have to pay off several monthly repayments at some point. It can quickly happen that you lose track of things or fall behind with payments if your life situation changes.

A simple solution is then to reschedule all of your outstanding loans to just one bank, i.e. replace the previous loan with credit. This gives you a better overview of the total debts that you still have and is only owed to one creditor.

Save money with debt restructuring

A particularly favorable offer, especially with regard to interest or repayment terms, can make rescheduling meaningful. So much money can be saved by lower interest rates. But it is also advantageous to set the monthly installments, which are adjusted to new living conditions, for example by a longer repayment period and therefore lower monthly installments than before.

When you redeem a loan with a loan, it is usually the case that the individual monthly installment is lower than the sum of the installments for many different creditors.

Conditions for loans

If you are considering the option of redeeming a loan with credit, you should inform yourself well beforehand. There are many different credit institutions with different terms. Definitely compare interest rates, term, fees and flexibility. Think about the future and whether you can meet your commitments by the end of a loan agreement. 
Check whether you meet the requirements for debt restructuring.

With reputable credit institutions you always have to provide proof of your liquidity, usually a confirmation is required that you are in permanent employment. The amount of net wages and other financial obligations must also be taken into account, after all, a credit institution needs the certainty that it will get borrowed money back.

Don't go lightly on a loan with particularly low interest rates. The overall package is crucial. Inquire at several banks and get advice from a specialist. Compare in peace until you are sure that you have received the right offer.

Social Institute Loan For Extinguishing Tan Facilitated Mortgage.

by Carla Lyons

Social Institute loans for mortgage repayment: who can apply for them?

There are many Italians who find it difficult to support a mortgage signed years ago, but it is not always possible to pay it off early. A situation in which public employees and retirees are undoubtedly advantaged compared to other categories of taxpayers, since they can resort to the Social Institute loan for mortgage repayment.

This is a loan at subsidized conditions disbursed by Social Institute in favor of subjects registered in the Public Employee Management. The Social Institute loan for mortgage repayment falls into the category of multi-year Social Institute loans ex Government Agency.

Loans granted only for documented needs falling within the cases envisaged by the Social Institute Loan Regulation. Among the purposes envisaged for long-term loans we find the extinction of an old mortgage loan. But let's see what are the requirements to access the Social Institute loan for mortgage repayment.

Government Agency Social Institute 2016 2017 loans for mortgage repayment: the contractual conditions

Caucasian woman writing notes near laptop while man searches files

Since this is a multi-year loan, the loan for extinguishing the loan is accessible only to pensioners and civil servants registered for the unitary management of credit and social benefits, the Social Institute credit fund through which loans are granted pursuant to Government Agency.

For access to credit, it is also necessary to be able to have at least four years of service seniority to the pension and not less than four years of contributory payment paid to the aforementioned Unitary Management.

With regard to the contractual conditions, the loans for mortgage repayment have a ten-year duration and the repayment of the credit takes place through an amortization plan in monthly installments, reduced directly from the paycheck or from the applicant's pension.

The interest rate is 3.5%. The amount that can be financed varies from case to case and is defined on the basis of the amount that the applicant must pay to the lender to pay off the current loan in advance.

It should also be remembered that in addition to the interest rate, a rate of 0.50% for administration costs and a share for the payment of the premium for the Social Institute risk provision also apply to the gross loan amount. The latter is defined on the basis of the age of the applicant and the duration of the loan.

Social Institute Loans 2016: application form and documents to be attached

The Social Institute loan application for mortgage repayment must be drawn up using the specific application form available on the official Social Institute website. The following documents must therefore be attached to the request :

  • self-certification of the applicant's family status;
  • mortgage deed ;
  • title of ownership of the property.

In addition to the documents listed above, it is also necessary to submit a declaration in which the lending institution certifies the amount necessary to be able to pay off the mortgage. The document must also specify which title the loan was granted and the identification data of the property on which the mortgage was opened.

Non-performing loans: how banks got rid of them

by Carla Lyons
In recent years one of the main reasons for the crisis of the Italian banking system is represented by the non-performing loans also known as "impaired loans" or npe loans (non-performing exposures).

Credits deriving from financing and mortgage

money These are credits deriving from financing, mortgage or current account opening contracts which the customer is unable to repay in whole or in part to the bank; the slowness of the Italian judicial system leads to collection times that are too long and the imprudent credit policy adopted by some credit institutions makes it in some cases improbable if not impossible to recover the credit. This situation led to the malfunction of the credit distribution mechanism: the weight of non-performing loans ("npl") affects the liquidity of the banks and negatively affects their ability to finance investments and grant loans. Banking institutions have had to set aside reserves to face any losses and in many cases have been forced to write down their receivables; according to the data reported by the Good Finance, the impaired loans of the Italian banks amount to 349 billion USD gross of the write-downs already recorded.

Non-performing loans

Non-performing loans ("npl"), therefore, represent a large boulder that banks must get rid of; the main instrument used for this purpose was the so-called credit securitization governed in Italy by law no. 130/1999. Thanks to this tool, lenders can get rid of bad loans. It is a very complex process that can be explained by clarifying these three basic points:


cash Securitizing a credit means transferring it to someone else transforming it into an obligation written on a piece of "paper", that is a title. The protagonists of this transaction are three: the seller (originator) which resells the credit thus obtaining the liquidity it needs, the transferee (the vehicle company, better known as SPV, "Special Purpose Vehicle") which replaces the original creditor in the right to collect the credit, and investors, that is, those who physically lend the money to the special purpose vehicle. The latter signs in favor of investors ABS (" Asset-Backed Security ") that guarantees them that they will return the money in the medium or long term; these are actual debt securities which attribute the right to receive the repayment of the nominal capital plus interest at maturity. But where does the money needed to repay investors come from? From the only person left unchanged: the initial debtor; the latter pays the installment due and in turn, the vehicle company reimburses the investors. The originators can be not only banks but also financial institutions and public bodies. The securitization also provides for a transfer of receivables without recourse; that is, the originator is not responsible in the event of default by the debtor. To this end, a very important role is played by the rating agencies, ie companies that express an opinion on the assigned credits; in particular, the suitability of the securitized portfolio to produce the money necessary to repay the securities is assessed ("rating" literally means evaluation). The rating agencies assign a score that takes into account various parameters such as the quality of the credits transferred, the nature of the debtor, the type of company assigned to recover the credits. This type of intervention has a cost but provides investors with valuable assistance in the correct assessment of credit risk.


the main advantage deriving from the securitization transaction is the immediate liquidity that is poured into the bank's coffers: the loan portfolio is sold against a cash consideration necessary to grant further loans. The main beneficiaries are private individuals but above all small and medium-sized enterprises ( SMEs ); through the reinvestment of the liquidity obtained from the securitization, the bank increases its profitability and can go back to "banking": that is, favoring consumption and investments through credit instruments. Securitization also allows the distribution of risk from the originator to other subjects ( investors ) who are better able to manage it; in this regard, we speak of " risk transfer ", that is, a risk-sharing tool. The transfer for consideration of credits, therefore, determines the re-use of money in more profitable activities offering benefits to the economic system as a whole.


every securitization involves risks for both the originator and the investors. The former will have to bear significant costs; for example the costs of issuing bonds, those deriving from the request for external guarantees, those of an administrative nature. The investor, to whom the bank's risk has been transferred, will instead have to deal with the debtor's possible insolvency. In this regard, we speak of " moral hazard "(ie the risk of insolvency of the counterparty); thanks to the possibility of resorting later to securitization, banks tend to invest in risky assets, discharging the risk of external losses. In fact, it has happened that banks have granted loans to unreliable subjects by reducing their controls on creditworthiness. The economic and financial crisis of recent years is a reflection of these incorrect choices and the use of securitization has favored the creation of a shadow banking system that is not subject to any supervision.

Payday Loans With VAT Number: The Most Interesting Solutions

by Carla Lyons
When you have an activity as a freelancer it can be difficult to get access to credit, as most lenders consider the paycheck as a reference point for solvency. This is a difficult but not impossible goal, as payday loans with VAT are available.

Loans to those who have a VAT number: what are the alternatives?

Loans to those who have a VAT number: what are the alternatives? Those who are looking for solutions related to payday loans with VAT number can consider various types of products, among which the promised loans stand out. These loans, which do not require the presentation of an expense voucher, are characterized by the obligation to sign bills. Bills of exchange are executive securities with a forced nature, which are characterized by the possibility of a conversion into cash. Their forced nature allows the institution that issued them to intervene by retaliating against the customer's assets in the event of insolvency.

Loans changed: what is needed to request them

Loans changed: what is needed to request them Loans changed, excellent alternatives when it comes to payday loans with VAT, can also be requested without presenting the paycheck. However, credit institutions and financial companies ask for another type of guarantee which, in the case of freelancers, takes the form of the presentation of a life insurance policy, which must have been active for at least two years. This is undoubtedly a comfortable solution, which however has a counter linked to the rate. The interest, in fact, is higher than that of the cash loans since the promissory notes, accessible without the need for a paycheck and also in the event of credit problems with registration with the Crif, are considered products at risk.

Loan with guarantor: a solution for those who have a VAT number

Loan with guarantor: a solution for those who have a VAT number Payday loans with VAT number can be requested by resorting to the guarantor solution. If you have a relative or friend with a fixed paycheck willing to present yourself as guarantor, a large part of the route is already done. What matters is the attention to some rules, for example to the fact that the intervention of the guarantor is of an extraordinary nature, unlike what happens with the co-obligation.

Pawn loan: how does it work?

Pawn loan: how does it work? The last solution that we take into consideration regarding payday loans with VAT number is the credit on pledge. In this case the only guarantee is the good that the customer decides to commit and that is evaluated by an expert. On the basis of his opinion, the requested amount is then disbursed. Once the payment of the installments has been completed, the customer has the opportunity to redeem the asset, upon presentation of a bearer policy which is delivered at the time of signing the loan contract. The lien on credit, which is made available by entities such as Unicredit, also provides for the payment of custodial costs.

Works credit: assess your borrowing capacity

by Carla Lyons

Transform the garage into a studio for the older child, redo the kitchen, add a bathroom for the children ... The evolution of the family or a new financial ease allow us to consider a work credit for the house. However, this loan works, like any credit, must be repaid. Hence the importance of assessing your borrowing capacity before borrowing $ 5,000.

Evaluate your borrowing capacity for a construction loan, why?

Evaluate your borrowing capacity for a construction loan, why? Requirements for a construction-to-permanent loan include a down payment of at least 20 percent of the estimated mortgage. While the home is being built, a homeowner only pays the interest on the outstanding balance. Private lenders may offer construction loans to qualified borrowers with a 5 to 10 percent down payment requirement. Government-backed loans are available with as little as zero down.  Construction loans are very short term, generally with a lifespan of one year or less.

Borrowing $ 1,000, or even going as far as borrowing $ 10,000, requires being able to assume the repayment of this loan every month. Especially that a work credit often turns out to be substantial. The lending institution will therefore help the borrower to assess its monthly repayment capacity based on its income and expenses. It is these monthly payments, as well as the desired loan duration, which will determine the amount of credit. The calculation of the borrowing capacity for this works credit is the starting point of the project.

How to calculate your borrowing capacity?

How to calculate your borrowing capacity?

Without being legally regulated, the limit on the debt ratio accepted by financial institutions is 33%. The debt ratio is calculated by making a ratio between the income of the borrower of the loan and the charges or other loans that he must assume. For a person who receives an income of $ 3,000 monthly and who repays a mortgage up to $ 650, the debt ratio is (650/3000) x 100 = 21.67%. He then has a borrowing capacity of 33 - 21.67 = 11.3% of his income, or $ 339. This amount is the key element in assessing the amount allocated to the work.

Also assess your borrowing capacity through a simulation for your cheap work credit.

Credit despite bad credit history or payment

by Carla Lyons
If the credit rating is poor, this makes it extremely difficult to borrow. Because then you can't just go there and take out any loan on excellent terms. Even if this is exactly what the advertising suggests. If you have a bad credit rating, you are not creditworthy and therefore very quickly stands in front of the closed doors of the banks. Because banks and savings banks only want solvent consumers as customers. No matter whether it is taking out a loan or opening an account. Now it happens again and again that despite bad creditworthiness, a loan is absolutely necessary. Perhaps this was supposed to eliminate the debts that led to the bad credit rating. Or it should be invested in the future, so that with a better income the bad credit rating can be a thing of the past at some point.

It will not be easy

It will not be easy However, since banks are not enthusiastic about lending a loan despite their poor credit rating, borrowers find it difficult to find good deals. There are various offers that advertise a loan despite poor creditworthiness. But usually you can assume that these are not serious and in the end only lead to the debt trap. Because mostly windy business people are behind it who only want to sell their insurance to the man or the woman and ultimately don't offer any loans at all. It is therefore advisable not to consider such offers in the first place and much rather to ensure that a second borrower accompanies the taking up of a loan despite poor creditworthiness. This can ensure that taking out the loan is still possible at a regular bank at worthwhile conditions.

Creditworthiness that the banks want

Creditworthiness that the banks want In the best case, the second borrower brings with it exactly the creditworthiness that the banks want for a loan. So you are always on the safe side and can choose the best loan from a pool of loan offers. Despite all of this, you should never forget that your credit rating is not good and that there are reasons for it. The loan should therefore only be taken out in spite of poor creditworthiness if it is really needed and if you can also afford the loan. Financing a relaxing holiday with a loan is not a good plan. Summarizing debts and eliminating them in this way is a very good plan. Because it helps to take a decent path again and to have a better life in the long term. And this should always be the goal if you want to take out a loan that shouldn't actually come about due to the poor credit rating.

13,000 dollars for self-employed – from just 113 dollars

by Carla Lyons
If you want to start your own business, you have to expect costs. Offices may have to be rented. Maybe IT equipment is needed. A homepage may also have to be created. You have to advertise your new offer or company. If you have no savings, a loan is inevitable. A 13,000 dollar loan for self-employed can help. But what conditions do you have to expect?

Loan for the self-employed 13,000 USD: that's what the banks understand by that

Loan for the self-employed 13,000 USD: that When you apply for a 13000 dollar loan for the self-employed, you need to know one thing. Banks understand this to be a special purpose loan. A loan for self-employed persons of EUR 13,000 is a commercial loan. Accordingly, you must prove that you are actually spending the money as requested. In return, however, you also get better interest rates than a free-use loan.

13,000 USD loan for self-employed: You have to expect this interest

13,000 USD loan for self-employed: You have to expect this interest The interest on a loan for self-employed persons of 13,000 USD is very good. The best APR comes from the Bank of Scotland. It is 1.95 percent. You will receive it for all terms from 24 months (2 years) to 84 months (7 years). For twelve months (1 year) you have to expect 1.99 percent effective interest. The offer comes from Loan plus Bank. At best, you pay 2.48 percent effectively to Salader for 96 months (8 years). For 108 months (9 years) to 144 months (12 years) term, the best annual percentage rate is 3.95 percent. It comes from extra credit. You can see from the values ​​that there is a great advantage in shorter terms: overall, interest rates are lower. In return, you have to live with higher rates.

Loan for self-employed 13,000 USD: Some examples of monthly payments

Loan for self-employed 13,000 USD: Some examples of monthly payments One question should still burn under your nails. What do the above explanations about the 13,000 dollar loan actually mean for self-employed persons? What monthly installments can be expected? What should you shoulder for what duration? At best, you would have to pay back 1094.94 USD for 12 months. You only get the best interest if you have a strong credit rating. If your credit repayment ability is weak, it can increase significantly. The rate burden drops significantly for 24 months. At best, you pay after 552.64 USD. You may find the best offer of term and interest rate for 84 months. The best rate is 165.59 USD. Then the interest rates rise, which affects the monthly installments. For example, at best, you would pay 113.06 USD for 144 months. With the 13,000 dollar loan for self-employed, you hardly save compared to 84 months per month, but you pay significantly more interest.

Debt restructuring without Credit bureau information

by Carla Lyons
Debt restructuring without Credit bureau information, through a reputable foreign bank, can accompany the return to financial normality. The article provides more information on debt restructuring via a foreign loan without Credit bureau.

Debt restructuring without Credit bureau information - Credit bureau-free Swiss loan

Debt restructuring without Credit bureau information - Credit bureau-free Swiss loan The arm of the Credit bureau extends very far in Germany. Almost every bank draws up information from Credit bureau when lending. Credit bureau is therefore almost “almighty” for determining creditworthiness. There is also no commercial loan provider, apart from the pawnshop, which does not report an approved loan to Credit bureau. Debt restructuring without Credit bureau information is therefore dependent on a foreign loan. This loan option is advertised primarily as a Swiss loan without Credit bureau. Until 2009, the name actually corresponded to the country of origin of this type of loan. At that time, several direct providers were based in Switzerland. The “end” for these providers came in April 2009. The decision of the Federal Administrative Court prohibited the largest provider of Credit bureau-free loans from operating in Germany. All providers at that time lacked the banking license for cross-border lending. Only in advertising has everything stayed the same. In 2013, Swiss credit is advertised by credit brokerage companies practically without exception. The advertising still conveys the image of different loan providers vying for customers. That is not entirely correct. As far as is known, only a single bank from Liechtenstein may legally grant Credit bureau-free loans to Germans. It is Cream bank, which was founded in 2010 especially for this purpose. The application for a debt rescheduling without Credit bureau information can be made directly at the credit bank or through an intermediary.

Borrower's requirements for debt rescheduling

Borrower The requirements for applying for a loan and the processing times are the same for everyone. It makes no difference whether an urgent loan from a credit broker or a loan is applied for on the bank's homepage. The application via the credit intermediary is only a little more convenient, but it is also more expensive. Only dependently employed applicants have a credit opportunity. The loan is secured only through labor income. Guaranteeing or pledging a real asset does not improve credit opportunities. Emphasis is placed on an employment contract that is unlimited, not terminated and has also been in place for at least 12 months. (Special regulation for time soldiers). The attachable portion of the monthly income is used to secure loans. He is to be ceded. The net income must therefore clearly exceed the garnishment exemption limit. There must also be no seizure of wages or existing assignment of salary. If the income is too low or is not fully transferred to the borrower's bank account, the credit request is rejected. The credit check does not only include a look at the income situation. The public debt register is also viewed. An entry in the public debtor register also results in the loan being rejected. Interested parties who meet the above requirements can apply for one of two loan amounts for debt rescheduling.

Loan conditions for a debt-free debt rescheduling loan

Loan conditions for a debt-free debt rescheduling loan A debt rescheduling without Credit bureau information can be requested in the amount of 3,500 USD or 5,000 USD. For the loan model with 3,500 USD Credit bureau-free credit, 11.62 percent effective annual interest is calculated. A single person without any maintenance obligations can qualify for the loan with a net income of at least 1,130 USD. The repayment is made in 40 equal monthly installments of USD 105.95 each. If 5,000 USD are to be rescheduled debt-free, then the Spin bank charges 11.61 percent APR. The minimum income to qualify for the loan, again using the example of a single person, must be 1,600 USD net. Repayment can only be made in 40 constant monthly installments. For the rescheduling of 5,000 USD, the monthly installment is 151.35 USD.

Debt restructuring in two phases

Debt restructuring in two phases If larger amounts are to be rescheduled, a loan without Credit bureau is usually not enough. Only one loan per applicant can be granted. The combination of both loan models is unfortunately also excluded. Nevertheless, a Liechtenstein loan proves to be a valuable start-up aid for a comprehensive debt restructuring. Due to the debt rescheduling without Credit bureau information, it is often possible to mark the active Credit bureau entry with the note "done". If all Credit bureau entries have been declared done, the loan offers expand again noticeably. Although a "normal" loan cannot be used for three years, the offers can still be used despite Credit bureau. 

Social micro-credit – where to obtain?

by Carla Lyons
Social microcredit, also called personal microcredit, is thought to improve the living conditions of individuals who cannot access the traditional bank loan. What principles is it based on? Who can claim it? Which address? Younited Credit, a pioneer in the online personal credit market in the country, tells you all about this device.

Social microcredit: decoding

Social microcredit: decoding Social microcredit is a form of personal loan. Partially guaranteed by the State and the lender, its interest rate is reduced. This credit is reserved for people excluded from the traditional banking circuit due to a fragile professional situation or modest income. Indeed, in the event of financial difficulties, a request for bank credit is very often the subject of a refusal. The absence of a guarantor is an additional reason for exclusion. Personal microcredit can for example concern:
  • people on fixed-term or temporary contracts;
  • people in seasonal or part-time employment;
  • unemployed people;
  • withdraw;
  • people receiving minimum social benefits;
  • people victims of a life accident (disaster, illness, etc.);
  • persons registered in the Personal Credit Repayment Incident File (FICP), who cannot take out a new bank loan;
  • persons registered with the FCC (Central Check File).
The repayment of such a loan can be made over a period of 6 months to 4 years, or even 5 years in certain situations. In all cases, the repayment capacity must be sufficient for the loan dossier to be accepted.

A microcredit, for what rate and for what maximum amount?

A microcredit, for what rate and for what maximum amount? Social microcredit is a small loan. The latter is adapted to the borrower's situation. It is generally between 300 and 5,000 $. However, in certain cases, the bank can grant a microcredit for a higher amount. As for the borrowing rate, it is most often of the order of 1.5 to 4%. Note: what other fees for a microcredit? Apart from the borrowing rate, personal microcredit comes with no fees. There are no administration fees, insurance costs or even compensation in the event of early repayment.

What project can I finance with social microcredit?

What project can I finance with social microcredit? Social microcredit cannot be used to finance any type of project. The objective of this system is to promote banking inclusion, but also and above all to encourage social integration, professional integration, and to improve family life. To be eligible for microcredit, the applicant must have a personal project related to this. Among other things, this credit could be used:
  • for mobility purposes for the maintenance, return or access to employment (purchase or repair of vehicles, financing of driving licenses, in particular);
  • to finance basic necessities (washing machine, furniture, etc.);
  • to cover funeral expenses;
  • to finance poorly reimbursed health costs (dental prostheses, hearing aids, eyeglasses ...);
  • to finance studies;
  • to finance vocational training.
Good to know: what is the difference with professional microcredit? Professional microcredit is not intended for individuals. It is intended to finance a business creation or takeover project. However, the repayment of other loans and the repurchase of debts are among the exclusions.